CCNA Self-Study, CCNA Portable Command Guide

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Command Syntax Conventions
The conventions used to present command syntax in this book are the same conventions used in the IOS Command Reference. The Command Reference describes these conventions as follows:
•Boldface indicates commands and keywords that are entered literally as shown. In actual configuration examples and output (not general command syntax), boldface indicates commands that are manually input by the user (such as a show command).
•Italics indicate arguments for which you supply actual values.
•Vertical bars | separate alternative, mutually exclusive elements.
• Square brackets [ ] indicate optional elements.
• Braces { } indicate a required choice.
• Braces within brackets [{ }] indicate a required choice within an optional elements.
Contents at a Glance
Introduction xx
Part I TCP/IP 1
Chapter 1
How to Subnet 3
Chapter 2
VLSM 21
Chapter 3
Route Summarization 29
Part II Introduction to Cisco Devices 35
Chapter 4
Cables and Connections 37
Chapter 5
The Command-Line Interface 43
Part III Configuring a Router 49
Chapter 6
Configuring a Single Cisco Router 51
Part IV Routing 65
Chapter 7
Static Routing 67
Chapter 8
RIP 73
Chapter 9
IGRP 79
Chapter 10
EIGRP 81
Chapter 11
Single-Area OSPF 87
Part V Switches 97
Chapter 12
Configuring a Switch 99
Chapter 13
Spanning Tree Protocol and EtherChannel 111
Chapter 14
VLANs 115
Chapter 15
VTP and Inter-VLAN Communication 125
Part VI Network Administration and Troubleshooting 141
Chapter 16
Backing Up and Restoring Cisco IOS Software and
Configurations 143
Chapter 17
Password Recovery Procedures and the
Configuration Register 157
Chapter 18
CDP 167
Chapter 19
Telnet 169
Chapter 20
ping and traceroute 173
Chapter 21
SNMP and Syslog 177
Chapter 22
Basic Troubleshooting 179
Part VII Managing IP Services 185
Chapter 23
NAT 187
Chapter 24
DHCP 197
Part VIII Wide-Area Networks 203
Chapter 25
HDLC and PPP 205
Chapter 26
ISDN and DDR 211
Chapter 27
Frame Relay 223
Part IX Network Security 233
Chapter 28
IP Access Control List Security 235
Part X Appendixes 247
Appendix A
Complete Configuration Example 249
Appendix B
Binary/Hex/Decimal Conversion Chart 265
Appendix C
Create Your Own Journal Here 275
Contents
Part I TCP/IP 1
Chapter 1
How to Subnet 3
Class A–E Addresses 3
Converting Between Decimal Numbers and Binary 4
Subnetting a Class C Network Using Binary 4
Subnetting a Class B Network Using Binary 8
Binary ANDing 12
Question 1 12
Answer 12
Question 2 13
Answer 13
So Why AND? 14
Question 3 14
Answer 14
Shortcuts in Binary ANDing 15
Question 4 15
Answer 15
Proof 15
Question 5 16
Answer 16
Question 6 16
Answer 16
The Enhanced Bob Maneuver for Subnetting 16
Chapter 2
VLSM 21
IP Subnet Zero 21
VLSM Example 22
Step 1 Determine How Many H Bits Will Be Needed to
Satisfy the Largest Network 23
Step 2 Pick a Subnet for the Largest Network to Use 23
Step 3 Pick the Next Largest Network to Work With 24
Step 4 Pick the Third Largest Network to Work With 25
Step 5 Determine Network Numbers for Serial Links 27
Chapter 3
Route Summarization 29
Example for Understanding Route Summarization 29
Step 1: Summarize Winnipeg’s Routes 30
Step 2: Summarize Calgary’s Routes 31
Step 3: Summarize Edmonton’s Routes 31
Step 4: Summarize Vancouver’s Routes 32
Route Summarization and Route Flapping 34
Requirements for Route Summarization 34
Part II Introduction to Cisco Devices 35
Chapter 4
Cables and Connections 37
Connecting a Rollover Cable to Your Router or Switch 37
Terminal Settings 37
LAN Connections 38
Serial Cable Types 39
Which Cable to Use? 40568A Versus 568B Cables 42
Chapter 5
The Command-Line Interface 43
Shortcuts for Entering Commands 43
Using the †
Key to Complete Commands 43
Using the Question Mark for Help 43
enable Command 44
exit Command 44
disable Command 45
logout Command 45
Setup Mode 45
Keyboard Help 45
History Commands 46
show Commands 47
Part III Configuring a Router 49
Chapter 6
Configuring a Single Cisco Router 51
Router Modes 51
Global Configuration Mode 52
Configuring a Router Name 52
Configuring Passwords 52
Password Encryption 53
show Commands 53
Interface Names 54
Moving Between Interfaces 57
Configuring a Serial Interface 57
Configuring an Ethernet/Fast Ethernet Interface 57
Creating an MOTD Banner 58
Setting the Clock Time Zone 58
Assigning a Local Host Name to an IP Address 58
no ip domain-lookup Command 59
logging synchronous Command 59
Part IV Routing 65
Chapter 7
Static Routing 67
Static Routing 67
The permanent Keyword (Optional) 68
Static Routes and Administrative Distance (Optional) 68
Default Routing 69
Verifying Static Routes 69
Configuration Example: Static Routes 70
Chapter 8
RIP 73
IP Classless 73
RIP Routing: Mandatory Commands 73
RIP Routing: Optional Commands 74
RIP Version 2 75
Troubleshooting RIP Issues 75
RIP Version 2: Mandatory Commands 76
RIP Version 2: Optional Commands 76
Configuration Example: RIP-2 Routing 76
Chapter 9
IGRP 79
IGRP Routing: Mandatory Commands 79
IGRP Routing: Optional Commands 80
Troubleshooting IGRP Issues 80
Chapter 10
EIGRP 81
Configuring EIGRP 81
EIGRP Auto Summarization 82
Verifying EIGRP 82
Troubleshooting EIGRP 83
Configuration Example: EIGRP 83
Chapter 11
Single-Area OSPF 87
OSPF Routing: Mandatory Commands 87
Wildcard Masks 88
Using Wildcard Masks with OSPF Areas 88
OSPF Routing: Optional Commands 89
Loopback Interfaces 89
OSPF DR/BDR Election 89
Modifying OSPF Cost Metrics 89
OSPF Authentication: Simple 90
OSPF Authentication Using MD5 Encryption 90
OSPF Timers 91
Propagating a Default Route 91
Verifying OSPF Configuration 91
Troubleshooting OSPF 92
Configuration Example: Single-Area OSPF 93
Part V Switches 97
Chapter 12
Configuring a Switch 99
Help Commands 99
Command Modes 99
Verifying Commands 100
Resetting Switch Configuration 100
Setting Host Names 101
Setting Passwords: 1900 Series Switches 101
Setting Passwords: 2900/2950 Series Switches 102
Setting IP Address and Default Gateway 102
Setting Interface Descriptions 103
Setting Duplex Settings: 1900 or 2900/2950 Series Switches 104
Setting Speed Settings: 2900/2950 Series Switches 104
Setting Web-Based Interface for Configuration: 1900 and 2900/2950 Series Switches 104
Managing the MAC Address Table: 1900 and 2900/2950 Series Switches 105
Configuring Static MAC Addresses 105
Port Security: 1900 Series Switches 105
Verifying Port Security 106
Configuration Example: 2900 Series Switch 107
Chapter 13
Spanning Tree Protocol and EtherChannel 111
Spanning Tree Protocol 111
Spanning-Tree Verification 111
Change Spanning-Tree Priority of a Switch 112
Changing the Cost of Spanning Tree on an Interface 112
Changing the State of Spanning Tree on an Interface 112
Spanning Tree Portfast BPDU Guard Command 113
EtherChannel 113
EtherChannel Configuration 113
Verification of EtherChannel 114
EtherChannel Tips 114
Chapter 14
VLANs 115
Displaying VLAN Information 115
Creating Static VLANs 116
Assigning Ports to VLANs 117
Assigning Ports Using the range Command (2950 Switch Only) 118
Saving VLAN Configurations 118
Erasing VLAN Configurations 119
Troubleshooting VLANs 120
Configuration Example: 2900 Switch Configuration 121
Chapter 15
VTP and Inter-VLAN Communication 125
Configuring ISL Trunks 125
Configuring Dot1Q Trunks 126
Verifying Trunking 126
VTP Configuration 127
Confirming VTP Configuration 128
Inter-VLAN Communication: Router-on-a-Stick 129
Router-on-a-Stick Tips 129
Configuration Example: VTP and Inter-VLAN Routing 130
Part VI Network Administration and Troubleshooting 141
Chapter 16
Backing Up and Restoring Cisco IOS Software and
Configurations 143
Boot System Commands 143
Cisco IOS Software Prerelease 12.0 Commands Versus Cisco
IOS Software 12.x Commands 144
Backing Up Configurations 144
Restoring Configurations 145
Backing Up IOS to a TFTP Server 145
Restoring/Upgrading IOS from a TFTP Server 146
Restoring IOS from ROMmon Mode Using Xmodem 147
Restoring the IOS Using the ROMmon Environmental Variables
and tftpdnld Command 150
Upgrading Catalyst 1900 Firmware with a TFTP Server 150
Copying IOS to TFTP Server 151
Firmware Upgrade of Catalyst 2950 Series Switches 152
Configuration Example: 2900 Series Switch 153
Chapter 17
Password Recovery Procedures and the
Configuration Register 157
The Configuration Register 157
The Configuration Register: A Visual Representation 157
The Configuration Register—What the Bits Mean 158
The Boot Field 158
Console Terminal Baud Rate Settings 159
Changing the Console Line Speed—CLI 159
Changing the Console Line Speed—ROM Monitor
Mode—1700/2600 Series 159
Password Recovery Procedures for Cisco Routers 160
Password Recovery for 1900 Series Switches 162
Password Recovery for 2900/2950 Series Switches 164
Chapter 18
CDP 167
Cisco Discovery Protocol 167
Chapter 19
Telnet 169
Telnet 169
Chapter 20
ping and traceroute 173
ICMP Redirect Messages 173
ping Command 173
ping 174
traceroute 175
Chapter 21
SNMP and Syslog 177
Configuring SNMP 177
Configuring Syslog 177
Chapter 22
Basic Troubleshooting 179
Viewing the Routing Table 179
Determining the Gateway of Last Resort 180
Determining the Last Routing Update 180
OSI Layer 3 Testing 180
OSI Layer 7 Testing 181
Interpreting the show interface Command 181
Clearing Interface Counters 181
Using CDP to Troubleshoot 182
traceroute Command 182
show controllers Command 182
debug Commands 182
Using Timestamps 183
OS IP Verification Commands 183
ip http server Command 184
netstat Command 184
Part VII Managing IP Services 185
Chapter 23
NAT 187
Configuring Dynamic NAT: One Private to One Public Address Translation 187
Configuring PAT: Many Private to One Public Address Translation 189
Configuring Static NAT: One Private to One Permanent Public
Address Translation 191
Verifying NAT and PAT Configuration 192
Troubleshooting NAT and PAT Configuration 192
Configuration Example: Port Address Translation 192
Chapter 24
DHCP 197
Configuring DHCP 197
Verifying and Troubleshooting DHCP Configuration 198
Configuring a DHCP Helper Address 198
Configuration Example: DHCP 198
Part VIII Wide-Area Networks 203
Chapter 25
HDLC and PPP 205
Configuring HDLC Encapsulation on a Serial Line 205
Configuring PPP on a Serial Line (Mandatory Commands) 205
Configuring PPP on a Serial Line (Optional Commands):
Compression 206
Configuring PPP on a Serial Line (Optional Commands): Link Quality 206
Configuring PPP on a Serial Line (Optional Commands): Multilink 206
Configuring PPP on a Serial Line (Optional Commands): Authentication 206
Verifying or Troubleshooting a Serial Link/PPP Encapsulation 208
Configuration Example: PPP 208
Chapter 26
ISDN and DDR 211
Configuring ISDN BRI: Setting the Switch Type 211
Configuring ISDN BRI: Setting SPIDs 212
Configuring ISDN PRI 212
Verifying ISDN Configuration 213
Troubleshooting ISDN 213
Configuring Legacy DDR 214
Configuring Dialer Profiles with DDR 215
Configuration Example: ISDN and DDR with No Dialer Profiles 218
Chapter 27
Frame Relay 223
Configuring Frame Relay: Setting the Frame Relay Encapsulation Type 223
Configuring Frame Relay: Setting the Frame Relay Encapsulation LMI Type 224
Configuring Frame Relay: Setting the Frame Relay DLCI Number 224
Configuring a Frame Relay Map 224
Configuring a Description of the Interface (Optional) 225
Configuring Frame Relay Using Subinterfaces 225
Verifying Frame Relay 226
Troubleshooting Frame Relay 226
Configuration Example: Frame Relay 227
Part IX Network Security 233
Chapter 28
IP Access Control List Security 235
Access List Numbers 235
ACL Keywords 235
Creating Standard ACLs 236
Applying a Standard ACL to an Interface 237
Verifying ACLs 237
Removing an ACL 238
Creating Extended ACLs 238
The established Keyword 239
Creating Named ACLs 240
Using Sequence Numbers in Named ACLs 241
Removing Specific Lines in a Named ACL Using Sequence Numbers 242
Sequence Number Tips 242
Including Comments About Entries in ACLs 242
Applying an Extended ACL to an Interface 243
Restricting Virtual Terminal Access 243
Configuration Example: Access Control Lists 244
Part X Appendixes 247
Appendix A Complete Configuration Example 249
Appendix B Binary/Hex/Decimal Conversion Chart 265
Appendix C Create Your Own Journal Here 275
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